I find that a man is as old as his work. If his work keeps him from moving forward, he will look forward with the work.
Man is the only animal that contemplates death, and also the only animal that shows any sign of doubt of its finality.
This merely formal conceiving of the facts of one's own wretchedness is at the same time a departure from them-placing them in the object. It is not idle, therefore, to observe reflexively that in that very Thought, one has separated himself from them, and is no longer that which empirically he still sees himself to be.
A person who wills to have a good will, already has a good will-in its rudiments. There is solid satisfaction in knowing that the mere desire to get out of an old habit is a material advance upon the condition of submergence in that habit. The longest step toward cleanliness is made when one gains-nothing but dissatisfaction with dirt.
Every social need, such as the need for friendship, must be a party to its own satisfaction: I cannot passively find my friend as a ready-made friend; a ready-made human being he may be, but his friendship for me I must help to create by my own active resolve.
However rich we may become in knowledge of the deeper causes of historical results, we forgo all understanding of history if we forget this inner continuity,-i.e., the conscious intentions of the participants in history-making and their consciously known successes.
We are driven to confess that we actually care more for religion than we do for religious theories and ideas: and in merely making that distinction between religion and its doctrine-elements, have we not already relegated the latter to an external and subordinate position? Have we not asserted that "religion itself" has some other essence or constitution than mere idea or thought?
What our view of the effectiveness of religion in history does at once make evident as to its nature is-first, its necessary distinction; second, its necessary supremacy. These characters though external have been so essential to its fruitfulness, as to justify the statement that without them religion is not religion. A merged religion and a negligible or subordinate religion are no religion.
No religion is a true religion that does not make men tingle to their finger tips with a sense of infinite hazard.
Only the man who has enough good in him to feel the justice of the penalty can be punished; the others can only be hurt.
We cannot swing up a rope that is attached only to our own belt.
And indeed, no man has found his religion until he has found that for which he must sell his goods and his life.
For those who have only to obey, law is what the sovereign commands. For the sovereign, in the throes of deciding what he ought to command, this view of law is singularly empty of light and leading. In the dispersed sovereignty of modern states, and especially in times of rapid social change, law must look to the future as well as to history and precedent, and to what is possible and right as well as to what is actual.
Principle I:;: Legal rights are presumptive rights.
Pure community is a matter of no interest to any will; but a community which pursues a common good is of supreme interest to all wills; and what we have here said is that whatever the nature of that common good ... it must contain the development of individual powers, as a prior condition for all other goods.
The only thing that can set aside a law as wrong is a better law, or an idea of a better law. And the only thing that an give a law the quality of better or worse is the concrete result which it promotes or fails to promote.
Without good-will, no man has any presumptive right, except the right or opportunity to change his will, so long as there is hope of it.
Nothing is more evident, I venture to think, as a result of two or three thousand years of social philosophizing, than that society must live and thrive by way of the native impulses of individual human beings.
Principle III:;: Presumptive rights are the conditions under which individual powers normally develop.
Principle II:;: The presumptions of the law are creative presumptions:;: they are aimed at conditions to be brought about, and only for that reason ignore conditions which exist.
Art is life, plus caprice.
Wherever moral ambition exists, there right exists. And moral ambition itself must be presumed present in subconsciousness, even when the conscious self seems to reject it, so long as society has resources for bringing it into action; in much the same way that the life-saver presumes life to exist in the drowned man until he has exhausted his resources for recovering respiration.
Where men cannot freely convey their thoughts to one another, no other liberty is secure.